About the Technology

CLARITY (Nature, 2013)

CLARITY enables the transformation of intact tissue into a nanoporous hydrogel-hybridized form (crosslinked to a three-dimensional network of hydrophilic polymers) that is fully assembled but optically transparent and macromolecule-permeable. Using a mouse brain, intact-tissue imaging of long-range projections, local circuit wiring, cellular relationships, subcellular structures, protein complexes, nucleic acids and neurotransmitters are shown.


SWITCH introduces a simple method that enables proteomic imaging for scalable, integrated, high-dimensional phenotyping of both animal tissues and human clinical samples. The technology uniformly secures tissue architecture, native biomolecules, and antigenicity across an entire system by synchronizing the tissue preservation reaction. The framework permits multiple rounds (>20) of relabeling while synchronizing labeling reactions to improve probe penetration depth and uniformity of staining.

Stochastic Electrotransport (PNAS, 2015)

This study introduces a novel transport concept that can selectively and nondestructively expedite transport of electromobile molecules into a porous sample, such as fixed biological tissues.
This method is used to rapidly transport several classes of molecules into whole mouse brains and other organs and achieve rapid clearing and staining of the entire tissue in record time without damaging the sample.

MAP (NBT, 2016)

Magnified Analysis of Proteome (MAP) linearly expands entire organs fourfold while preserving their overall architecture and three-dimensional proteome organization. The expanded tissue tissue preserves its protein content, its fine subcellular details, and its organ-scale intercellular connectivity. Off-the-shelf antibodies can be used for multiple rounds of immunolabeling and imaging of a tissue’s magnified proteome.